children education
children education

Investing in Pre-K: Frequently Asked Questions

 

Why should Montana invest in pre-K?

 

What does quality pre-K really mean? 

Investing in Pre-K: Economic Returns for the State

With an investment in quality pre-K programs, Montana would experience long-term economic returns. Investing in pre-K will:

  • Prepare children to succeed in kindergarten;
  • Support families and parents’ ability to stay in the workforce;
  • Reduce special education costs;
  • Increase earnings of participants; and
  • Reduce criminal justice system


How are pre-K programs delivered to participating children?  

 

How does pre-K impact a child participant?   

 

 

www.MontanaBudget.org

 

Do the positive effects of pre-K last?

 

How does investing in pre-K help families?

$7,922, roughly 11 percent of the average Montana family’s yearly income and 37% of the average income for a single parent.[15] The cost of child care for a four-year-old now exceeds the annual cost of tuition at a Montana university.

How does investing in pre-K help businesses?

 

How does investing in pre-K help the state economy?

What preschool programs are currently available in Montana?

 

How will this impact existing private child care providers?

 

How will this impact Head Start programs?

 

Where does the 7-to-1 benefit-cost ratio come from and what does it mean?

 

Do the economic benefits of pre-K exist for both targeted and universal programs?

 

 

How do states ensure public funds are invested in quality programs?

Endnotes

[1] Office of the Governor. “2019 Biennium Budget.” Accessed December 10, 2016. http://budget.mt.gov/Portals/29/execbudgets/2019_Budget/2019%20Montana%20Biennial%20Budget%20Overview.pdf.



[2] Montana Budget & Policy Center, “Strengthen Families, Strengthening Our Economy: The Economic Benefits of Pre-K,” September 2014. http://www.montanabudget.org/economic_benefits_of_pre-k/



[3] W.S. Barnett, A.H. Friedman-Krauss. R.E. Gomez, M. Horowitz, G. G. Weisenfeld, & J. H. Squires. (2016). “The State of Preschool 2015: State Preschool  Yearbook.”  National  Institute  for   Early   Education   Research.   http://nieer.org/state-preschool-yearbooks/the-state-of-preschool- 2015



[4] W.S. Barnett, A.H. Friedman-Krauss. R.E. Gomez, M. Horowitz, G. G. Weisenfeld, & J. H. Squires. (2016). “The State of Preschool 2015: State Preschool  Yearbook.”  National  Institute  for   Early   Education   Research.   http://nieer.org/state-preschool-yearbooks/the-state-of-preschool- 2015



[5] W.S. Barnett, A.H. Friedman-Krauss. R.E. Gomez, M. Horowitz, G. G. Weisenfeld, & J. H. Squires. (2016). “The State of Preschool 2015: State Preschool Yearbook.” National Institute for Early Education Research.  http://nieer.org/state-preschool-yearbooks/the-state-of-preschool- 2015



[6] W.S. Barnett, A.H. Friedman-Krauss. R.E. Gomez, M. Horowitz, G. G. Weisenfeld, & J. H. Squires. (2016). “The State of Preschool 2015: State Preschool  Yearbook.”  National  Institute  for   Early   Education   Research.   http://nieer.org/state-preschool-yearbooks/the-state-of-preschool- 2015



[7] W. Steven Barnett. “Long –Term Effects of Early Childhood Programs on Cognitive and School Outcomes.” The Future of Children. Winter 1995. http://www.princeton.edu/futureofchildren/publications/docs/05_03_01.pdf



[8] James J. Heckman. “Invest in early childhood development: Reduce deficits, strengthen the economy.” http://heckmanequation.org/content/resource/invest-early-childhood-development-reduce-deficits-strengthen-economy



[9] For example, the Chicago Child-Parent Centers study showed that the program reduced high school dropouts by 24 percent. The HighScope Perry Pre-School program resulted in a 25 percent reduction in high school dropouts. Clive R. Belfield, Patrick McEwan. “An Economic Analysis of Investments in Early Childhood Education in Massachusetts.” October, 2004. http://www.researchconnections.org/childcare/resources/13048



[10] W. Steven Barnett. “Getting the Facts Right on Pre-K and the President’s Pre-K Proposal.” National Institute for Early Education Research. February 2013. http://nieer.org/policy-issue/getting-the-facts-right-on-pre-k-and-the-presidents-pre-k-proposalf



[11] Julia Isaacs. “Research Brief #1: State Pre-Kindergarten.” Brookings Institute Center on Children & Families. September 2008. https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/09_early_programs_brief1.pdf



[12] Montana Office of Public Instruction. “K-12 Education, 2015 Legislative Session.” June 2015. http://www.opi.mt.gov/pdf/Superintendent/2015LegSummary.pdf



[13] Clive R. Belfield, Patrick McEwan. “An Economic Analysis of Investments in Early Childhood Education in Massachusetts.” October 2004. http://www.researchconnections.org/childcare/resources/13048



[14] American Community Survey. “Selected Economic Characteristics, 3 year estimates,” accessed September 12, 2016. http://factfinder.census.gov/bkmk/table/1.0/en/ACS/14_5YR/DP03/0400000US30



[15] Childcare Aware of America. “Parents and the High Cost of Child Care. 2015 Report.” 2015. http://usa.childcareaware.org/wp- content/uploads/2016/05/Parents-and-the-High-Cost-of-Child-Care-2015-FINAL.pdf



A single mother in Montana with children under the age of 18 has an average income of $21,202 a year. A married couple family with   children under the age of 18 has an average income of $74,340. American Community Survey. “Median Family Income in the Past 12 Months (In 2014 Inflation-Adjusted Dollars) by Family Type by Presence of Own Children Under 18 Years.” 2010-2014 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates. http://factfinder.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=ACS_14_5YR_B19126&prodType=table



[16] U.S. Department of Treasury. “Investing in Child Care: Challenges Facing Working Parents and the Private Sector Response.” 1998. http://www.treasury.gov/press-center/press-releases/Documents/chdcare.pdf



[17] Charles Bruner. “Many Happy Returns: Three Economic Models that Make the Case for School Readiness.” State Early Childhood Policy Technical Assistance Network. December 2004. http://www.finebynine.org/uploaded/file/SECPTAN_MHR_final.pdf



[18] The Missoulian. “Editorial: Investment in early education will pay off exponentially.” June 1, 2014. http://missoulian.com/news/opinion/editorial/missoulian-editorial-investment-in-early-education-will-pay-off- exponentially/article_54b43982-e822-11e3-ac42-001a4bcf887a.html



[19] W. Steven Barnett. National Institute for Early Education Research. “Benefits of Preschool for All.” January 2006. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/d18e/3c397060e42fe72175378849dfbbb1a148bf.pdf



[20] Arthur J. Reynolds, Judy A. Temple, and Dylan L. Robertson, et al. “Age -26 Cost-Benefit Analysis of the Child-Parent Center Early Education Program.” 2011. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3817956/



[21] Great Falls Tribune. “Bullock promotes ‘early edge’ plan for kids.” October 15, 2014. http://www.greatfallstribune.com/story/news/local/2014/10/14/bullock-promotes-early-edge-plan-kids/17271315/



[22] W.S. Barnett, A.H. Friedman-Krauss. R.E. Gomez, M. Horowitz, G. G. Weisenfeld, & J. H. Squires. 2016. “The State of Preschool 2015: State Preschool  Yearbook.”  National  Institute  for  Early   Education   Research.   http://nieer.org/state-preschool-yearbooks/the-state-of-preschool- 2015



[23] Daphna Bassok, Maria Fitzpatrick, and Susanna Loeb. “Does State Preschool Crowd-Out Private Provision? The Impact of Universal Preschool on the Childcare Sector in Oklahoma and Georgia.” National Bureau of Economic Research. Working Paper No. 18605. December 2012. http://www.nber.org/papers/w18605



[24] Head Start. An Office of the Administration for Children and Families Early Childhood Learning and Knowledge Center. “Head Start Program Facts, Fiscal Year 2015.” August 24, 2016. https://eclkc.ohs.acf.hhs.gov/hslc/data/factsheets/docs/head-start-fact-sheet-fy- 2015.pdf



[25] Benefits.gov, “Montana Head Start: General Program Requirements,” retrieved on October 23, 2014, http://www.benefits.gov/benefits/benefit-details/1921



[26] Arthur J. Reynolds, Judy A. Temple, and Dylan L. Robertson, et al. “Age -26 Cost-Benefit Analysis of the Child-Parent Center Early Education Program.” 2011. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3817956/ and HighScope Perry Preschool Study. “Lifetime Effects: The HighScope Perry Preschool Study through Age 40 (2005).” Accessed October, 2016. http://www.highscope.org/content.asp?contentid=219     27 W. Steven Barnett. “Getting the Facts Right on Pre-K and the President’s Pre-K Proposal.” National Institute for Early Education Research. February 2013.  http://nieer.org/policy-issue/getting-the-facts-right-on-pre-k-and-the-presidents-pre-k-proposal



[28] Timothy J. Bartik. “From Preschool to Prosperity: The Economic Payoff to Early Childhood Education.” W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research. 2014, http://www.upjohninst.org/Publications/Titles/FromPreschooltoProsperity



[29] Halley Potter and Julie Kashen. “Together from the Start.” The Century Foundation. October 14, 2015. https://tcf.org/content/report/together-from-the-start/



[30] W. Steven Barnett, Kristy Brown and Rima Shore. “The Universal vs. Targeted Debate: Should the United States Have Preschool for All?” National Institute for Early Education Research. April 2013. http://nieer-www1.rutgers.edu/resources/policybriefs/6.pdf



[31] W. Steven Barnett, M.E., Carolan, J.H. Squires, K. Clarke Brown. 2016. “The state of preschool 2015: State preschool yearbook.” National Institute for Early Education Research. http://nieer.org/sites/nieer/files/Iowa_2015.pdf



[32] W. Steven Barnett, M.E., Carolan, J.H. Squires, K. Clarke Brown. 2016. “The state of preschool 2015: State preschool yearbook.” National Institute for Early Education Research. http://nieer.org/state-preschool-yearbooks/the-state-of-preschool-2015



[33] W. Steven Barnett, M.E., Carolan, J.H. Squires, K. Clarke Brown. 2016. “The state of preschool 2015: State preschool yearbook.” National Institute for Early Education Researchhttp://nieer.org/state-preschool-yearbooks/the-state-of-preschool-2015



[34] W. Steven Barnett, M.E., Carolan, J.H. Squires, K. Clarke Brown. 2016. “The state of preschool 2015: State preschool yearbook.” National Institute for Early Education Research. http://nieer.org/state-preschool-yearbooks/the-state-of-preschool-2015

Montana Budget & Policy Center

Shaping policy for a stronger Montana.

MBPC is a nonprofit organization focused on providing credible and timely research and analysis on budget, tax, and economic issues that impact low- and moderate-income Montana families.